Asynchronous Behavior

You may have noticed some other parts of the guide using await when calling some methods on wrapper, such as trigger and setValue. What's that all about?

You might know Vue updates reactively: when you change a value, the DOM is automatically updated to reflect the latest value. Vue does these updates asynchronously. In contrast, a test runner like Jest runs synchronously. This can cause some surprising results in tests.

Let's look at some strategies to ensure Vue is updating the DOM as expected when we run our tests.

A Simple Example - Updating with trigger

Let's re-use the <Counter> component from event handling with one change; we now render the count in the template.

const Counter = {
  template: `
    <p>Count: {{ count }}</p>
    <button @click="handleClick">Increment</button>
  `,
  data() {
    return {
      count: 0
    }
  },
  methods: {
    handleClick() {
      this.count += 1
    }
  }
}

Let's write a test to verify the count is increasing:

test('increments by 1', () => {
  const wrapper = mount(Counter)

  wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')

  expect(wrapper.html()).toContain('Count: 1')
})

Surprisingly, this fails! The reason is although count is increased, Vue will not update the DOM until the next event loop tick. For this reason, the assertion (expect()...) will be called before Vue updates the DOM.

TIP

If you want to learn more about this core JavaScript behavior, read about the Event Loop and its macrotasks and microtasks.

Implementation details aside, how can we fix this? Vue actually provides a way for us to wait until the DOM is updated: nextTick.

 





 




import { nextTick } from 'vue'

test('increments by 1', async () => {
  const wrapper = mount(Counter)

  wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')
  await nextTick()

  expect(wrapper.html()).toContain('Count: 1')
})

Now the test will pass because we ensure the next "tick" has been executed and the DOM has been updated before the assertion runs.

Since await nextTick() is common, Vue Test Utils provides a shortcut. Methods that cause the DOM to update, such as trigger and setValue return nextTick, so you can just await those directly:




 




test('increments by 1', async () => {
  const wrapper = mount(Counter)

  await wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')

  expect(wrapper.html()).toContain('Count: 1')
})

Resolving Other Asynchronous Behavior

nextTick is useful to ensure some change in reactive data is reflected in the DOM before continuing the test. However, sometimes you may want to ensure other, non Vue-related asynchronous behavior is completed, too.

A common example is a function that returns a Promise. Perhaps you mocked your axios HTTP client using jest.mock:

jest.mock('axios', () => ({
  get: () => Promise.resolve({ data: 'some mocked data!' })
}))

In this case, Vue has no knowledge of the unresolved Promise, so calling nextTick will not work - your assertion may run before it is resolved. For scenarios like this, Vue Test Utils exposes flushPromises, which causes all outstanding promises to resolve immediately.

Let's see an example:

 










 




import { flushPromises } from '@vue/test-utils'
import axios from 'axios'

jest.mock('axios', () => ({
  get: () => Promise.resolve({ data: 'some mocked data!' })
}))

test('uses a mocked axios HTTP client and flushPromises', async () => {
  // some component that makes a HTTP called in `created` using `axios`
  const wrapper = mount(AxiosComponent)

  await flushPromises() // axios promise is resolved immediately

  // after the line above, axios request has resolved with the mocked data.
})

TIP

If you want to learn more about testing requests on Components, make sure you check Making HTTP Requests guide.

Conclusion

  • Vue updates the DOM asynchronously; tests runner executes code synchronously instead.
  • Use await nextTick() to ensure the DOM has updated before the test continues.
  • Functions that might update the DOM (like trigger and setValue) return nextTick, so you need to await them.
  • Use flushPromises from Vue Test Utils to resolve any unresolved promises from non-Vue dependencies (such as API requests).